I can’t find any historical references to Catherine Soup so this could very well be the soup devised by the home economics teacher. It sounds an awful lot like a homemade tomato soup or vegetable puree. This could be good as a winter lunch soup, as it sounds hearty and sustaining, while also warming the body. As to the ingredients, I have no idea how much a tin of tomatoes contained, so try 1 medium tomato. Also, cut the vegetables into smaller pieces so they will cook through more quickly! Finally, feel free to run this through your blender once the vegetables are soft rather than smashing them through a sieve.
Put into a saucepan 1 onion, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 1 tin tomatoes, 4 tablespoonful rice, salt, pepper, 1 cupful milk, a piece butter the size of an egg & 3 pints cold water. Put the pan on the fire & let these boil until the vegetables are quite soft, then rub them through a sieve. Return to the saucepan, add tiny pinch sugar & stir until boiling. Serve with a round of bread toasted & cut in neat pieces.